29 thoughts on “The Repentance( سورة التوبة)

  1. This Surah is known by two names — At-Taubah and Al-Bara’at. It is called At-Taubah because it enunciates the nature of taubah(repentance) and mentions the conditions of its acceptance.(vv. 102. 118). The second name Bara’at (Release) is taken from the first word of the Surah.

    Omission of Bismillah

    This is the only Surah of the Quran to which Bismillah is not prefixed. Though the commentators have given different reasons for this, the correct one that which has been given by Imam Razi: namely,this is because the Holy Prophet himself did not dictate it at the beginning of the Surah. Therefore the Companions did not prefix it and their successors followed them., This is a further proof of the fact that utmost care has been taken to keep the Quran intact so that it should remain in its complete and original form.

    This Surah comprises three discourses:-

    The first discourse (vv. 1-37), was revealed in Zil-Qa’adah A.H. 9 or thereabout. As the importance of the subject of the discourse required its declaration on the occasion of Haj the Holy Prophet dispatched Hadrat Ali to follow Hadrat Abu Bakr, who had already left for Makkah as leader of the Pilgrims to the Ka’abah. He instructed Hadrat Ali to deliver the discourse before the representatives of the different clans of Arabia so as to inform them of the new policy towards the mushriks.

    The second discourse (vv., 38-72) was sent down in Rajab A.H. 9 or a little before this, when the Holy Prophet was engaged in making preparations for the Campaign, of Tabuk. In this discourse, the Believers were urged to take active part in Jihad, and the shirkers were severely rebuked for holding back their wealth and for hesitation to sacrifice their lives in the way of Allah because of their hypocrisy, weak faith or negligence.

    The third discourse (vv. 73-129) was revealed on his return from the Campaign of Tabuk. There are some pieces in this discourse that were sent down on different occasions during the same period and were afterwards consolidated by the Holy Prophet into the Surah in accordance with inspiration from Allah. But this caused no interruption in its continuity because they dealt with the same subject and formed part of the same series of events. This discourse warns the hypocrites of their evil deeds and rebukes those Believers who had stayed behind in the Campaign of Tabuk. Then after taking them to task, Allah pardons those true Believers who had not taken part in the Jihad in the Way of Allah for one reason or the other.

    Chronologically, the first discourse should have come last; but being the most important of the three in regard to its subject matter, it was placed first in the order of compilation.

    Now let us consider the historical background of the Surah. The series of events that have been discussed in this Surah took place after the Peace Treaty of Hudaibiyah. By that time, one-third of Arabia had come under the sway of Islam which had established itself as a powerful, well organized and civilized Islamic State. This Treaty afforded further opportunities to Islam to spread its influence in the comparatively peaceful atmosphere created by it. After this Treaty, two events took place, which led to very important results:

    The first was the Conquest of Arabia. The Holy Prophet was able to send missions among different clans for the propagation of Islam. The result was that during the short period of two years, it became such a great power that it made the old order of ignorance’ feel helpless before it. So much so that the zealous elements from among the Quraish were so exasperated that they broke the Treaty in order to encounter Islam in a decisive combat. But the Holy Prophet took prompt action after the breach so as not to allow them any opportunity to gather enough force for this. He made a sudden invasion on Makkah in the month of Ramadan in A. H. 8 and conquered it. Though this conquest broke the backbone of the order of ignorance, it made still another attack on Islam in the battle-field of Hunain, which proved to be its death-knell. The clans of Hawazin Thaqif, Naur, Jushm and others gathered their entire forces in the battle field in order to crush the reformative Revolution, but they utterly failed in their evil designs. The defeat of ‘ignorance’ at Hunain paved the way for making the whole of Arabia the ‘Abode of Islam’ (Dar-ul-Islam). The result was that hardly a year had Passed after the Battle of Hunain, when the major portion of Arabia came within the fold of Islam and only a few upholders of the old order remained scattered over some corners of the country.

    The second event that contributed towards making Islam a formidable power was the Campaign of Tabuk, which was necessitated by the provocative activities of the Christians living within or near the boundaries of the Roman Empire to the north of Arabia. Accordingly, the Holy Prophet, with an army of thirty thousand marched boldly towards the Roman Empire but the Romans evaded the encounter. The result was that the power of the Holy Prophet and Islam increased manifold and deputations from all corners of Arabia began to wait upon him on his return from Tabuk in order to offer their allegiance to Islam and obedience to him. The Holy Quran has described this triumph in Surah An-Nasr: “When the succor of Allah came and victory was attained and you saw people entering the fold of Islam in large numbers…

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    1. If we keep in view the preceding background, we can easily find out the problems that were confronting the Community at that time. They were:

      to make the whole of Arabia a perfect Dar-ul-Islam,

      to extend the influence of Islam to the adjoining countries,

      to crush the mischiefs of the hypocrites, and

      to prepare the Muslims for Jihad against the non- Muslim world.

      Now that the administration of the whole of Arabia had come in the hands of the Believers, and all the opposing powers had become helpless, it was necessary to make a clear declaration of that policy which was to be adopted to make her a perfect Dar-ul-Islam. Therefore the following measures were adopted:

      A clear declaration was made that all the treaties with the mushriks were abolished and the Muslims would be released from the treaty obligations with them after a respite of four months.(vv. 1-3). This declaration was necessary for uprooting completely the system of life based on shirk and to make Arabia exclusively the center of Islam so that it should not in any way interfere with the spirit of Islam nor become an internal danger for it.

      A decree was issued that the guardianship of the Ka`abah, which held central position in all the affairs of Arabia, should be wrested from the mushriks and placed permanently in the hands of the Believers, (vv. 12-18) that all the customs and practices of the shirk of the era of ‘ignorance’ should be forcibly abolished: that the mushriks should not be allowed even to come near the “House” (v. 28). This was to eradicate every trace of shirk from the “House” that was dedicated exclusively to the worship of Allah.

      The evil practice of Nasi, by which they used to tamper with the sacred months in the days of ‘ignorance’, was forbidden as an act of kufr(v. 37). This was also to serve as an example to the Muslims for eradicating every vestige of the customs of ignorance from the life of Arabia (and afterwards from the lives of the Muslims everywhere).

      In order to enable the Muslims to extend the influence of Islam outside Arabia, they were enjoined to crush with sword the non- Muslim powers and to force them to accept the sovereignty of the Islamic State. As the great Roman and Iranian Empires were the biggest hindrances in the way, a conflict with them was inevitable. The object of Jihad was not to coerce them to accept Islam they were free to accept or not to accept it-but to prevent them from thrusting forcibly their deviations upon others and the coming generations. The Muslims were enjoined to tolerate their misguidance only to the extent that they might have the freedom to remain misguided, if they chose to be so, provided that they paid Jizyah (v. 29) as a sign of their subjugation to the Islamic State.

      The third important problem was to crush the mischiefs of the hypocrites, who had hitherto been tolerated in spite of their flagrant crimes. Now that there was practically no pressure upon them from outside, the Muslims were enjoined to treat them openly as disbelievers (v. 73). Accordingly, the Holy Prophet set on fire the house of Swailim, where the hypocrites used to gather for consultations in order to dissuade the people from joining the expedition to Tabuk. Likewise on his return from Tabuk, he ordered to pull down and burn the ‘Mosque’ that had been built to serve as a cover for the hypocrites for hatching plots against the true Believers.

      In order to prepare the Muslims for Jihad against the whole non-Muslim world, it was necessary to cure them even of that slight weakness of faith from which they were still suffering. For there could be no greater internal danger to the Islamic Community than the weakness of faith, especially where it was going to engage itself single-handed in a’ conflict with the whole non-Muslim world. That is why those people who had lagged behind in the Campaign to Tabuk or had shown the least negligence were severely taken to task, and were considered as hypocrites if they had no plausible excuse for not fulfilling that obligation. Moreover, a clear declaration was made that in future the sole criterion of a Muslim’s faith shall be the exertions he makes for the uplift of the Word of Allah and the role he plays in the conflict between Islam and kufr. Therefore, if anyone will show any hesitation in sacrificing his life, money, time and energies, his faith shall not be regarded as genuine. (vv. 81-96).

      If the above-mentioned important points are kept in view during the study of this Surah, it will facilitate the understanding of its contents.

      In continuation of Surah Al-Anfal, this Surah also deals with the problems of peace and war and bases the theme on the Tabuk Expedition.

      This portion deals with the sanctity of treaties and lays down principles, rules and regulations which must be kept in view before breaking them, in case the other party does not observe them sincerely. 1 – 12

      In this portion the Muslims have been urged to fight in the Way of Allah with the mushrik Arabs, the Jews and the Christians, who were duly warned of the consequences of their mischievous and inimical behavior. 13 – 37

      In this discourse, the Muslims have been told clearly and explicitly that they will inherit the rewards promised by Allah only if they take active part in the conflict with kufr, for that is the criterion which distinguishes true Muslims from hypocrites. Therefore true Muslims should take active part in Jihad, without minding dangers, obstacles, difficulties, temptations and the like. 38 – 72

      This portion deals with the problems of hypocrites and lays down rules and regulations governing the treatment that should be meted out to them and points out their distinctive marks from true Muslims. 73 – 90

      This portion deals with the case of those who remained behind and did not accompany the Holy Prophet for Jihad to Tabuk. For this purpose they have been separated in different categories, that is, the disabled, the sick, the indigent, the hypocrites, the believers who realized their guilt and punished themselves before the return of the Holy Prophet from Tabuk and those who confessed their error. Their cases have been dealt with in accordance with the nature and extent of their offense. 91 – 110

      In order to make their noble qualities look all the more conspicuous and dignified by contrast, the characteristics of the Believers have been mentioned, and they have been reassured that Allah, the Sovereign of the Universe, is their helper and guardian. Accordingly, because of their sincerity, He has forgiven the Three Believers who did not take part in the expedition. 111 – 118

      In the concluding portion, general instructions have been given to the Believers for their guidance. 119 – 127

      This is the conclusion: “Follow the Messenger who is gentle and compassionate and your greatest well-wisher, and trust in Allah, the Lord of the Universe”. 128 – 129

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  2. Hi Soheir.. as a person blessed by God to read 10 to 15 times faster than the average human being.. i always look to the copy of the Koran on my night stand and read whatever chapter you highlight here by video way in both languages as it takes me less than 5 minutes.. as opposed to an hour and a half.. truly it is a blessing to do that.. and i can open up the Koran at any point and the same pattern is visible through out the holy text as fight of the believers against the disbelievers and how God will surely punish the disbelievers.. But still i always listen to a few verses of the Video too.. to see the emotional intent of the reader.. and sure it is not much different than the lectors in my Catholic Church.. who read it mostly as a dictation.. of respect.. where words become leaders…

    And what this reminds me of is the ‘Holy War’ of Iraq.. when amazingly after the 9/11 terrorist event.. propagated by Saudia Arabian Terrorists.. George W. Bush gets up to the open microphone with the Nation and clearly states that Iraq.. Iran.. and Korea.. are the axis of evil.. and to make all their leaders devils incarnate.. will be a way to gain the oil of Iraq and Iran eventually.. as if it were not for this natural resource of the middle east.. the middle east as a barren area.. with few natural resources other than oil.. would be a non-factor of U.S. policy.. no different than other countries in barren Africa where genocide.. murder.. and rape.. is a way of life.. in Police States.. of killing.. like Somalia…

    i have a globe of the World above my desk that shows the Geography with blues.. browns.. and greens of the earth.. of course the green is lush and living with resources.. the blue is life giving water.. where fresh.. and the brown is either mountains.. sands.. or building and concrete earth of human being..

    Where there is all green.. with fresh water rivers.. like where you live in Egypt.. there is a fertile Nile that at one point is the live giving resource of that area.. and a cradle of civilization of human beings who start in that area.. and those who have the nomad genetics as opposed to sitters in life.. spread as far as South America.. and the human species is now a global one..

    And sure wherever there are the deepest browns on that globe.. or white of snow.. as well.. where resources are hard to come by for life.. are the greatest areas of conflicts.. where humans fight for survival.. So it only makes common sense that the Nature that people live in.. is the God they see too.. And the tribal instinct of human is gifted by God.. for survival.. to gain.. subsistence.. including territory.. with additional resources…

    So it is no surprise that when i pick up my copy of the Koran.. and flip to almost any page.. it is the believers against the non-believers in other lands.. and the background information provided by Imran.. is important to understand the context of the times.. and how this common element of the believers against the non-believers is a tool.. to consolidate and inspire people to the cause of Allah as champion.. to overcome and expand the Muslim way.. as dictated to Muhammad in the cave…

    And truly its not much different with the Christian Bible either.. as even in the New Testament as well as original Gnostic Gospels.. before Emperor Constantine and his Catholic Cohorts revised the bible however they wanted to.. there is the mention of the sword to Spread Christianity no different than the Holy War against the Infidels in the Koran.. so the Christian Crusades.. go on for Centuries.. disbelievers in Fundamental Christianity are burned at the stake.. hung.. and slain in many other ways.. and the river of blood flows freely to expand territories of Christian Rule…

    The common element.. my friend.. is survival.. and sure God evolves us to survive.. and if there are not enough resources humans will even kill their own new-born children.. to allow the other healthy older children to survive with filicide.. a terrifying sick reality of life.. but never the less.. a practice one sees in very poor areas of the world still.. where people are that desperate to live.. so what i try not to do.. is not judge another person.. or country.. realizing the heaven i have here where i live.. is a direct result as well.. as a gift of God of Natural Resources.. fortune of genetic abilities.. as well as Loving Family i am born into…

    God is not fair.. in the temporal world we live in.. there is no doubt about that.. my child is born.. and suffers for 51 days.. with nothing but pain.. but you see.. God is fairer than human being.. ’cause modern medicine keeps him alive and suffering.. where he will only die and pass on to Allah’s design.. as Natural otherwise.. and suffer only seconds instead of days and days of hundreds of thousands of seconds.. but never the less.. some of us are much more blessed than others by God.. and that is God’s design.. we can get mad if we want.. but it is what it is.. the best place is acceptance of what is.. and change what we can..

    So sure.. Muhammad with the help of God changed what he could.. and it was a really bloody ordeal… and some human beings are born into a bloody ordeal from birth as a natural consequence of living as well.. So Allah is a God of both pain and pleasure.. suffering and bliss.. and death and life.. and we tiny humans may wanna make this a perfect place of order and control.. but the fact is.. Allah works not with human eyes but eyes of Allah.. which are infinitely greater.. where human has no escape.. as human is an infinite part of Allah as well..

    So we do the best we can.. some folks kill in the name of Allah.. and some folks Love in the Name of Allah.. and Allah allows us to be born.. and one day Allah will naturally kill us again.. and if night and day comes.. if seasons change.. and the New Year Starts with a brighter way.. there is always hope that the light follows dark.. and the balance of Allah goes on.. with Love and Hate.. Hope and Fear.. War and Peace.. birth and death.. and the best thing of all.. is.. we have a say so in how now goes.. we can either Love with hope.. or Kill with fear.. we can either share and give.. or hoard and take…

    But sure it’s easier to share and give in a lush forest..
    as an Indigenous American Indian..
    peace Loving. . sharing and giving..

    Than in a desert.. or in a country that
    allows no freedom of expression for
    humans to freely be human..
    the irony continues of
    dark and light..

    The dark says the dark is light and
    the light says the light is dark..
    but God knows and feels all
    as GOD the same..

    i for one..

    choose the lighted way..

    Others choose the darker way..

    And for me.. at least
    the bottom line
    is Love and
    Hope..
    Peace.. and
    fearlessness
    my friend.. but truly
    not everyone can be
    Jesus.. Buddha.. or Muhammad..
    as the Devils of ‘Holy Wars’ like
    Iraq who call themselves Light
    and the Dark of ISIS.. who fight
    against the so-called dark
    idolators.. and call
    themselves
    Light
    will surely
    continue to
    believe there
    own fear.. hate
    and killing ways..
    so we do what we can
    to change the course of
    history.. toward Light.. Love
    and Peace.. but as history shows
    the road of light is paved with human
    and other
    species
    blood..
    i Have a huge case of paper
    towels and toilet paper to
    clean up that blood
    and other
    stuff..
    but sadly
    the sewer of
    killing is too large
    without lots of help
    and more paper towels
    and toilet paper.. my friend..
    So now it is not enough to talk
    about words of the past.. it’s a
    great history lesson..
    but truly
    the world is
    much bigger
    darker.. and yes
    lighter too.. in some
    places.. TG.. so i feel blessed
    to be in the lighter GREENER pArt..
    and pray for those in the darker Brown
    and white parts.. like Russia.. too..
    and do what i can
    to help them
    up.. to LOVE..
    but to kill them..
    nah.. that would be
    foolish.. as my Love
    is Unconditional
    and my SwordS
    will only
    be ART
    of human
    being and not
    the tools of death…
    so sure i stand upon
    men of swords.. namely
    Jesus.. but my way is better
    my friend.. than even Jesus
    as my swords
    are words
    and never
    tools
    of
    killing….
    the lesson of
    a Bonobo my friend
    an advanced species..
    of God as Loving way…
    if a hairy ape can do it..
    hairy me
    can do
    it too..
    smiles again..
    and laughs.. Ynot..
    my son died for it..
    as the way up
    is the
    way
    down
    as well..
    and up again..
    my friend Soheir in eventual
    balance.. as liGht becomes dArk..
    As Ark of Covenant with GOD..:)

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    1. Hello Fred
      You’re welcome
      I do not agree about all what you said
      But of course you can say whatever you feel or believe
      The space is wide and life is good
      Mohammad does not write the Qoran
      It is revealed to him from God..believe that or not..it does not matter…the judjment is only by God..not me or you..
      I am sorry for your son
      I am sure he is now in a better place than here on earth..he is in the heaven..
      Smiles Fred:-)

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      1. Smiles.. my friend.. SOHEIR you are incorrect..
        i never said the Koran was not revealed to
        Muhammad by God.. in fact i am 100%
        sure the Koran is revealed by God..
        as all God’s children are
        Gods eyes too..
        But you see..
        there are Followers
        and leaders among both
        men and women.. my friend..
        there are spectators as audience..
        there are writers.. producers.. and there
        are actors too..
        and there
        is a place
        in God’s Play
        of Infinity for ALL
        those folks my friend..
        but you see i am no follower
        of anyone but God.. but you see..
        i still listen to those who follow other
        humans as well as humans who insist
        they only follow what tHeir eyes of God
        will say..
        my eyes of
        God are Infinity
        with God my friend..
        there are no beginnings
        or endings.. no start or
        finish.. i am ONE
        with GOD.. there
        is NO separation NOW..
        and what that means
        friend is i am both
        ONE with you and
        Muhammad.. as
        all of us
        lead
        to
        this one
        point NOW in time
        IN TERMS OF
        GODALLONE
        no other less
        or greater than
        the other.. as WE
        are ALL pArt of GOD
        with eYes of God..
        some bigger
        some smaller..
        but none
        any less
        important
        than the other..
        as there is NO SEPARATION
        OF GOD’S EYES WITH OURS..
        DARK OR LIGHT ALL IS GOD
        ALPHA TO OMEGA
        AND
        SO MUCH
        MORE THAN
        HUMAN EYES
        ALONE WILL EVER SEE…
        And sure.. that’s just my opinion
        not any more important than
        anyone else’s opinion..
        even a
        child at
        age 3
        who
        cannot
        speak at all is eyes
        of Allah my friend..
        so sure.. Muhammad
        has them too in words
        as well..
        dArk
        or liGht
        it is ALL
        GOD’s DARK AND LIGHT
        and all between.. outside
        inside.. above.. so below..
        and all around
        LIGHT and DARK..
        including the
        place
        my child
        exists
        now..
        i AM CAREFUL
        TO WORSHIP ALL
        OF GOD.. AND NOT
        JUST ONE NUMBER…
        LETTER.. BOOK
        OR OTHER
        PART OF
        GODALLONE..
        MY FRIEND..
        SOHEIR..
        OTHERS CAN
        CHOOSE a smaller
        God than that now..
        IF THEir LEADER
        or tHeir heArt
        tales them
        different..
        but i choose..
        GODALLONE..
        God will not
        mind at all..
        as GOD
        is no
        human
        mind
        alone
        or HeaRt
        period.. anynow..
        and that should
        be easy to see from
        a planet as small as ours..
        for those.. with a mind
        and heart larger than a
        mind my friend.. AND HEART..
        the size of God will
        never change to
        smaller
        no matter
        who says
        or feels
        this
        or that..
        GODISALLONE..
        Seriously.. i’ve read many
        books.. but the Koran does
        not impress me as compared
        to some others.. nor does the bible..
        as it is written from a place..
        far from my heaven
        friend.. but
        still.. ALL THAT IS..
        i find very interesting..
        as well.. as all is interesting
        to me.. dark and light.. as sure
        It is ALL PART OF GOD AND yes..
        WORTH studying dark and light..
        But God is every human being too..
        and for anyone to suggest that
        Killing other humans is
        any answer is
        Killing part
        of GOD
        and that my
        friend is simply
        selfish and foolish..
        but yes.. at times in
        history what folks see
        as necessary for survival..
        and once again.. that is part
        of GOD too.. no ESCAPE MY
        FRIEND..
        NO
        ESCAPE..
        DARK AND
        LIGHT IS GOD..:)

        Liked by 2 people

  3. I, for one, much prefer the conversation above, between Fred and SOHEIR, to any of the Bibles, Qurans, or other holy books I’ve ever read…. My only response possible is this, which happens to be axiom #2 of Peruaosophy, to wit:

    “Thou art God, you know. Let’s do lunch….”

    Love it. You both are good people; if more of those who squabble and fight over the Earth like little children needing a nap were of your ilk, it would be a much more civilized place to live…

    Peace….

    gigoid,, the dubious

    Liked by 3 people

      1. Thanks SOHEIR and bless you and Imran Ali.. And to the potential of all humans too.. As if the devil of a fool can be a good person.. They can too.. And to be clear.. i am referring to what God once has me be.. In this same lifetime.. Of course as metaphor.. My friend.. But if you ever notice.. The court jester’s head cover looks like it has ram horns.. So synchronicities continue.. Now only if I can learn small talk.. Like just saying.. Thanks.. WInks..;)

        Liked by 1 person

  4. Quran 20:82
    ——————
    وَإِنِّي لَغَفَّارٌ لِّمَن تَابَ وَآمَنَ وَعَمِلَ صَالِحًا ثُمَّ اهْتَدَىٰ

    But indeed, I am the Perpetual Forgiver of whoever repents and believes and does righteousness and then continues in guidance.

    Liked by 1 person

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